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Oct 04, 2022
Java vs. Python: Which One to Choose for Your Next Software Project?
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Programming languages are fundamental requirements for a developer’s toolbox and are essential to creating every software application feature. However, with the plethora of programming languages in the marketplace for software engineers, it becomes confusing when choosing the right option for a software project.

 

Java and Python are the most used programming languages for developing the backend of an application. With Python’s incredible progress in the past few years and Java holding onto its position among developers with regular updates, it often seems that these languages are capable of doing any task.

 

But as a newbie in the programming world, you might feel stuck when choosing the one to start. On the other hand, if you are a business owner who wants to bring your idea into reality, opting for the backend language that would be perfect for your project can be challenging.

 

To help you out, we'll cover the basics of Java and Python, including their advantages and disadvantages, differences, and the best scenarios to use them.

Java Overview

Java is a class-based, high-level, object-oriented, concurrent, general-purpose, secured programming language, first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995 by James Gosling, designed to have minimal implementation dependencies. Currently owned by Oracle, Java is used to develop desktop apps, web applications, mobile apps, games, web servers, application servers, database connections, and more.

 

The primary goal behind developing the Java language was to be able to create “write once, run anywhere” code. Using Java requires understanding both its programming language and its software platform. The Java software platform includes the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), Integrated Development Environment (IDE), and Java API.

 

To create a Java-based software app, downloading Java Development Kit (JDK) is a must. After installing JDK, a developer can write code in Java for a software program that will get compiled into Java bytecode for Java Virtual Machine (JVM) - a part of Java Runtime Environment (JRE) so that the JVM can run the Java Bytecode.

 

Together, the Java software platform and Java language create a robust, powerful, secured technology to develop enterprise software applications. 

 

Advantages & Disadvantages of Java.png

Advantages of Java

Programmers can carry out any task related to system development with Java, as compared to other languages. Some of the major advantages that Java offers include:

 

Straightforward - Programming Java is anything but difficult. Aside from having an increasing-returns learning curve and syntax similar to C++, it uses automatic garbage collection to remove unwanted, unreferenced objects.

 

Object-Oriented - The object-oriented programming (OOP) paradigm in Java makes it more practical. Java uses concepts like classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, and abstraction which takes care of both data and behavior. The OOP concept enables Java to solve real-world problems and maintain complex code by distributing them into smaller fragments.

 

Platform Independent - As we have discussed above, Java uses WORA, i.e., write once run anywhere concept. This simply refers to the ability of Java programs to run on any system with the Java software platform on it, without the need to re-write the code according to the operating system. In simple terms, Java has no dependencies on the hardware or OS, making it hyper-flexible and platform-independent.

 

Secured - Unlike C or C++ languages that use pointers for memory access, Java doesn’t have any explicit pointers. Instead, Java uses OOP concepts like encapsulation and inheritance, improving the security of data while avoiding any unauthorized user access.

 

High-Level Language - Being a high-level language, Java is closer to human language with fewer syntaxes that are easy to understand and remember. That’s why Java has an interpreter to interpret its code into machine-level language so that it can be comprehended by the system.

 

Automatic Garbage Collection - In Java, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) automatically manages the memory by removing objects that don’t belong to any class from the program.

 

Multithreading Support - Java supports multi-threaded environments where larger tasks are converted into multiple threads that run independently without requiring extra memory for every running thread.

Disadvantages of Java

Although the advantages of Java seem never-ending, nothing is without disadvantages. Some of the cons that the Java language still has to deal with are:

 

Poor GUI - When it comes to the graphical user interface (GUI), Java is remarkably backward with poor GUI support, making it difficult to create complex user interfaces. Although there are multiple frameworks to develop a complex UI for the application, they are not up to the mark like in other languages.

 

Complex Code - The code syntax in Java is complex and verbose which makes it hard to remember the syntaxes and leads many programmers to choose Python instead.

 

Difficult Memory Management - Java Memory is controlled by trash collection, whenever the refuse collector runs, it influences the apparatus' display. The reason for this is that all strings inside the junk authority string need to be stopped before the junk authority string can function.

Python Overview

Python is an object-oriented, interpreted, general-purpose, high-level programming language, designed to emphasize code readability using considerable indentation. Python is often used to develop software programs and websites, conduct data analysis, and automate tasks. As it is easy to learn, it has been adopted by several non-programmers for different purposes.

The core driving source of Python is its simplicity and the ease it offers for learners. Moreover, Python is an interpreted language, which means that developers can write the code directly into the terminal rather than in other development environments that require the compilation of the entire program before running the code.

 

Using Python to develop a project, a developer can use different programming paradigms like object-oriented programming, reflective programming, and functional programming.

 

With Python, programmers seldom need to start from the ground up, even if they wish to work on machine learning software, there’s a framework available for that.

 

 

Advantages & Disadvantages of Python.png

 

Advantages of Python

Undoubtedly, the flexibility and versatility of Python are hard to match. But, there are some other advantages that Python offers to the developers as well, including:

 

Extensive Libraries - Python comes with vast library support for performing common commands and tasks. One can easily find any function needed to complete a required task and doesn’t have to depend on external libraries. 

 

Platform Independent - Similar to Java, Python is platform independent so the developer doesn’t have to rewrite code for different platforms or operating systems. All that is required is an interpreter designed specifically for that platform.

 

Simple & Easy - Python is a beginner’s friendly programming language that is easy to learn because of its English-like syntax. Although both Java and Python are high-level languages, Python requires fewer lines of code to perform the same task.

 

Interpreted - Python is an interpreted language that executes code sequentially. So, in case of errors, the program stops executing the code further and reports back the error.

 

Fast Development - Due to the easiness, practicality, and simplicity of writing code, a developer can create a software application faster.

Disadvantages of Python

Just like Java, Python also has its set of disadvantages, some of them are:

 

Inefficient Memory - Python uses a large chunk of memory from the system, which can be a great disadvantage if a developer wants to build applications with memory optimization.

 

Weak Mobile Computing - As Python uses extensive memory and has slow processing power as compared to other languages, Python is never used for mobile application development.

 

Slow Execution - The dynamic nature of Python trades for its slow speed as extra effort is put in while coding execution. Simply, in Python, the code is executed line by line, leading to slower execution.

 

Runtime Errors - As Python is a dynamically typed language, the type of data variables isn’t constant and can be changed anytime, leading to an increased number of runtime errors.

 

Difficult to Access Databases - As we know, Python is easy to work with. However, communication with databases using Python can be challenging as its access layer is underdeveloped and primitive as compared to Java Database Connectivity (JDBC).

Key Differences & Similarities: Java v/s Python 

Parameters

Java

Python

Learning Curve

A Bit Complex

Easy to Learn

Performance

Just-in-Time (JIT) compiler and parallel programming of Java improve the speed and efficiency of Java programs.


Overall, Java provides better performance.

While the interpretation of each line of code slows the program, run-time type checking and vast use of memory reduce the performance of Python.

Typing

Statically-typed OOP concurrent language.

Dynamically-typed OOP language.

Verbosity

Highly verbose

Concise

Compilation

Compiled

Interpreted

Programming Paradigm

Object-Oriented

Procedural, Functional, and Object-Oriented

Cross-Platform

Yes

Yes

Lines of Code

Has lines of code

Have fewer lines of code

Syntax

Complex

Easier to Read

Inheritance

Supports single, multiple, multi-level, hierarchical, and hybrid inheritance.

Provides single, multi-level,   hierarchical, and hybrid inheritance

Object Model

Everything in Java begins and ends with an object.

Even when there is an option to use objects and classes in Python, developers can create a program without using them.

Speed

Being a compiled language, Java executes its code faster.

As Python is an interpreted language where data type is also defined at run-time, code execution is slower.

Databases

With JDBC, Java has strong database connectivity.

The database connectivity in Python is underbuilt and weak.

Portability

Java Virtual Machine (JVM) makes Java highly portable.

Python offers portability but not as much as it is offered in Java.

Code Readability

Simple programs like “Hello World” require a minimum of 5 to 6 lines of code due to Java verbosity. Hence, code readability in Java is tricky compared to Python.

Python, on the other hand, requires one line of code to create a “Hello World” program, making code readability easier.

Stability

As everything in the Java programs needs to be reviewed before execution, the software is more stable.

As code in Python is checked during runtime, it is not as stable as Java software.

Use Cases

Java is preferred in developing embedded, cross-platform, and middleware software applications.

Python is highly preferred for data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence software programs.

Program Example

public class World

{

public static void main (String args[ ])

{

System.out.println (“Hello World”);

}

}

Print (“Hello World”)

 

Who Uses Java & Python

Java is more often used for web development and is common among senior developers as it has a natural language processing community and allows asynchronous programming. Java is the best-suited language for developing desktop applications, enterprise solutions, middleware applications, and embedded systems. Top companies using Java are Uber, Google, Amazon, Microsoft, Instagram, and Pinterest.

 

On the other hand, Python is more often used for data science and machine learning applications as it has excellent data processing libraries and data visualization capabilities. Python is used by Pixar, Netflix, FaceBook, JP Morgan Chase, IBM, and Intel.

 

That being said, we can conclude that there’s no possible way to choose the best programming language given both have their advantages and disadvantages. As a startup or enterprise owner, hiring Java or Python developers will entirely depend on the project requirements you might have.

 

Which do you prefer?

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