Provided your client funded the amount in escrow, it can take anything up to 14 days once you have delivered your work and asked for escrow to be released. After 14 days if you haven't heard from your client, then Upwork automatically releases it.
If your client has not funded escrow, then you will just have to hope that he/she is honourable and will pay you. If this is the case, wait a couple more days and send a friendly reminder by asking if there are any amendments (but not extra work to be done) to be made, or something similar.
I hope it works out for you.
Just to add to everything else that people said -- if you submit to a milestone and ask for partial payment, and they never release and then submit the final part of the milestone and have to wait out the time, the clock is reset again, which sucks.
So, let's say you do half the milestone and submit for half of the amount. The client doesn't respond. Then, you do the other half a week later and submit for the full amount. The clock resets and you have to wait another 2 weeks for the first half to release. Found that out the hard way.
I have a customer that never releases the escrow but escrows for a month's worth of work. Every time I submit to the milestone, the countdown resets for what I did weeks ago. It's annoying. So now I just submit 2 weeks in and let the clock run down and send him the other 2 weeks in email.
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