So I have a client who claims that I did not not prepare a memo as he asked, but I did. I'm going to get burned on money, but I don't care. What I do care about is feedback from the client and job completion score.
The feedback page requires that I specify a reason for terminating job. One of the options is "job was completed unsuccessfully." Frankly, that makes no sense. And it requires that I rate the client. The client would receive a poor rating if I followed through.
I want to terminate the job because I don't want to hurt my job compleation score, but I don't want to enable negative comments from the person who has cheated me.
The client has the option to leave private feedback whether you close the contract or the client closes it. The private feedback is factored into your score. If you receive zero payment, no public feedback will show on your profile. I just thought I would point this out since it sounds like you are not clear on how it works.
I don't recall "job completed unsuccessfully" as an option, usually when I close a contract I use "job completed successfully." I may not have noticed this option because it never applied. I think the reason might impact your score, but I am not sure since JSS is a little mysterious. The private feedback where the client answers whether they would recommend you (scale of 1 - 10) definitely is a factor per Upwork documentation.
If the client closes the contract, then he/she has to leave feedback. If you close it, then you have to leave feedback for the client, but the client has an option to leave it (or not).
The best outcome is if you can revise the deliverable, so the client is happy. (If that is a realistic option). Since your profile is private, I can't see where you are. Keep in mind that your first ten or so contracts all weigh really heavy towards your score. You can't control everything, and sometimes it is best to move on. However, if there is a reasonable way to work things out, then that is always better.
No matter what you do, the client will be able to leave private feedback. I've never seen that option either ... seems odd.
If you're positive that you met the expectations of the job, why don't you request payment? Was this an hourly or a fixed price job?
ETA: Ah, yes ... Jen M. is spot on ... I didn't track that you are at the "submit work, get paid" spot. Yes ... that's what you should do, and then sit tight for 14 days to see what happens.